Monday, September 30, 2019
A criminologist blames economic recession and complex financial system as major reasons for the rising white collar crimes in the U. S. Ã¢â¬Å"In huge numbers of cases, people are not aware that they have been victims of white collar crime, for example, subjected to illegally spewed out pollution, or that they have purchased products that are unsafe, or that they have been subjected to corporate price fixing, or to the consequences of commodity speculation, which is believed to be one significant factor in driving up the cost of gasoline at the pump.Ã¢â¬Å"WitnessesÃ¢â¬ of white collar crime who often do not realize that a crime has occurred , may be confused about what to do in response to it. And our traditional frontline enforcement agencies ha not been organized to monitor and respond to white collar crime. In this case principal gents who handle such cases play an important role in white collar crime. Informers & Whistle Blowers: Ethics Text #6. How can corporations ensure th at their employees behave ethically? An ethical culture should be a top priority of every business, large or small. The challenge for many organizations is trying to understand what it takes to build one. From an enforceable code of conduct, to ongoing training and communications, to an anonymous reporting hotline, companies can quickly implement ethics and compliance programs and solutions that foster an ethical culture across the enterprise. In many companies today, management is dealing with a hodge-podge of different personalities, belief systems, backgrounds, ethnicities and politic affiliations. These are just a few things that may impede creating a single unified system of ethics. While many may say that right and wrong is what should ultimately determine the culture, others will argue that what is right for the majority may not be right for the minority. Having an ethical culture is an important component to running an effective business today. In fact, with the current state of legal and industry regulations, from Sarbanes-Oxley to HIPAA, not only is having an ethical culture a good idea, it is now practically a requirement. Developing an ethical culture will take more than creating a list of company dos and donÃ¢â¬â¢ts; although that list will help. It will take more than issuing a code of conduct via email to a new hire; although that too will help. What it will take is a combination of things. On this page, we focus on the top six steps that have the most effective and direct impact on establishing an ethical culture. The six steps are as follows: 1. Establish an enforceable code of conduct 2. Initial and ongoing training 3. Regular communications 4. Anonymous reporting hotline 5. Enforcement/Action 6. Rewarding employees that live the culture 1. Establish an Enforceable Code of Conduct A code of conduct, often referred to as a code of ethics, is the foundation of any ethics program. The code of conduct should not be designed as a reaction to past missteps. An ethical culture is built upon the proactive efforts of the organization. The development of the code of conduct should be led by those at the top of the company, and should also include employees in the process. 2. Initial and Ongoing Training There is a phrase that has been used many times when it comes to training: Ã¢â¬Å"The day we stop learning is the day we die. Ã¢â¬ One of the most important aspects of developing an ethical culture is the ongoing training that companies can provide to executives and employees. The purpose of training is to help employees know what is expected of them and to help them understand that a strong ethical culture can protect the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation and actually enhance profits. Employees need to know that their ethical or unethical choices will have a direct impact on the success or failure of the company. In addition, training should also be tailored to specific positions in the company and employees roles. Management may need additional training to help deal with employee issues, while someone in purchasing may need more training on gifting policies and someone in finance needs to understand the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s position on fraud. 3. Regular Communications Once the policy has been executed and training has started, communicating aspects about the code of conduct can have a significant impact on the ethical culture. Many of these communications come through the human resources department, but the voice of the executive management team is critical in these communications. The goal of communications is to make ethics a live, ongoing conversation. If ethics is something that is constantly addressed, referenced frequently in company meetings, and in personal conversations among managers and employees, then people are more aware and more willing to defend the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s policies when they see or hear of problems. Employees will hold other employees responsible and accountable for living the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s values. 4. Anonymous Reporting Hotline The fact that an ethics hotline exists within many companies may be a surprise to their employees. The hotline number or Web site URL is often hidden in the back of an employee handbook or within the dusty binder labeled Corporate Governance. An anonymous hotline provides employees with a confidential way of reporting unethical or inappropriate behavior. Many people are not comfortable with reporting bad behavior for fear of being considered a Ã¢â¬Å"snitch,Ã¢â¬ possible repercussions if the guilty party learned of who reported him or her, or perhaps impacts on their job. Ã¢â¬Å"Unfortunately, more than two of five employees (42 percent) who witnessed misconduct did not report it through any company channels.Others may want to report their concerns, but are not comfortable going directly to a manager or fellow employee. This is why the anonymous reporting hotline is so important. In its 2006 Report to the Nation on Fraud and Abuse, the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners concluded that Ã¢â¬Å"Occupational frauds are more likely to be detected by a tip (34%) than by other m eans such as internal audits, external audits or internal controls. 5. Enforcement/Action A code of conduct has to be enforceable, and a company needs to take action when problems arise. Employees should be part of the enforcement and know if and when it has been violated. While 42 percent of employees are reluctant to report unethical behavior, the good news is that the ERC study also found that Ã¢â¬Å"the rate of misconduct is cut by three-fourths at companies with strong ethical cultures, and reporting is doubled at companies with comprehensive ethics programs. Ã¢â¬ Unethical behavior can have a damaging effect on a variety of aspects of a business, from brand reputation to bottom-line revenues. WorldComÃ¢â¬â¢s and EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s names will forever be connected to accounting scandals that led to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Lockheed Martin was forced to pay $2. 5 million for knowingly looking the other way on alleged racial discrimination. Without enforcement, ethical guidelines listed in a corporate code of conduct are simply nice suggestions. 6. Rewarding Employees That Live the Culture The final step in developing an ethical culture is rewarding employees that behave ethically and live the culture that the organization is trying to instill companywide. With an ethics policy in place, ongoing training and communications, the ability to report unethical behavior and strict enforcement, an organization will have the structure in place that will leave little doubt the importance of ethical behavior. Like a manufacturing company that brags about its safety record with signs indicating how many days without an accident, companies should publicly congratulate their employees for adhering to the code of conduct. That performance could be rewarded in terms of a bonus based on how much money the company saved by not having internal issues or having to fight legal battles over unethical business or accounting practices. If an employee completes ethics training, is responsible for blowing the whistle on questionable activities, or provides unique ways for protecting the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s confidential information, he or she should be recognized publicly by management. Employees need to know that creating an ethical culture is important to everyone from their direct managers to c-level executives.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
PRESENT TRENDS IN HOUSKEEPING DEPARTMENT Accommodation Management Staffing The housekeeping department of a hotel is responsible for Ã¢â¬Ëcleanliness, maintenance, aesthetic upkeep of rooms, public areas, back areas and surroundings. Ã¢â¬â¢ The department is not always given the respect it is due in terms of work load, the size of which can be estimated by the fact the department often employs the largest workforce.There are a variety of areas the housekeeping department must manage, the following table taken from Hotel Housekeeping Operations and Management depicts the housekeeping departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s span of control: Front of House Areas Back of House Areas Ã¢â¬ ¢ Guestrooms Ã¢â¬ ¢ Corridors Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lobbies and public restrooms Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pool and patio areas Ã¢â¬ ¢ Meeting rooms Ã¢â¬ ¢ Dining rooms/restaurants Ã¢â¬ ¢ Banquet halls Ã¢â¬ ¢ Convention Halls Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hotel-operated shops Ã¢â¬ ¢ Games rooms / recreation rooms Ã¢â¬ ¢ Exercise rooms / gymnasium Ã¢â¬ ¢ Building e xterior Ã¢â¬ ¢ Landscaping and gardens Ã¢â¬ ¢ Management offices Storage areas Ã¢â¬ ¢ Linen and sewing rooms Ã¢â¬ ¢ Laundry room Ã¢â¬ ¢ Employee locker rooms Ã¢â¬ ¢ Administrative offices Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cloak rooms Ã¢â¬ ¢ MaidÃ¢â¬â¢s service room The diversity of areas controlled by the housekeeping department requires structured planning when delegating tasks to be undertaken. Developing an organizational structure is a process which deals with Ã¢â¬Ëidentifying and grouping workÃ¢â¬â¢ and aims to ensure the department works as a unit, with clear lines of authority and good lines of communication and is essential for the smooth running of the department.A Schematic representation, known as an organizational chart, assists in defining roles and relationships within an organization, the following organizational chart has been created for a four star hotel with one hundred bedrooms. Ã¢â¬ËStructure is the best way to channel employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ efforts towards productive efforts ( OÃ¢â¬â¢Fallon et al, 2010). It is important to continually review an organizations structure to ensure the structure is aiding the attainment of the organizations goals and proving to beÃ¢â¬ ¦
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Steve Jobs is arguably one of the most successful CEOs of our times. In his time at Apple and Pixar he has redefined business across the Computing, Music and Mobile communications industries. In spite of being a college dropout he has gone on to become a technology and a business icon. His ability to achieve extraordinary success against tremendous odds makes him an extremely interesting personality to study. Following are his key personality traits. 1)Charismatic Charisma refers to the ability of a person to be able to mesmerise and hold the attention of others. Steve Jobs has charisma in ample abundance. His talks at the annual Macworld Expo have an attendance akin to that of a rock concert. People from all over the world flock in to listen to him for hours together as he delivers his famed talks on technology, innovation and Apple products. 2)Ingenious Ingenious is a rare personality trait that enables an individual to be clever, original and innovative. Prior to the launch of the iPod, the entire industry was looking at desktop publishing and the internet as new sources of revenue. Steve Jobs however was among the few who realised that there was latent demand in the MP3 player segment. He followed up on his insight by launching an iPod which had extremely innovative functions and a unique design. The product captured the attention of the world and along with his other innovation iTunes went on to change the way the world listens to music. Quite clearly he is an ingenious person. 3)Persistent Persistence is the ability of a person to stick to his convictions in spite of huge obstacles. With regard to this an early manager of his had commented that Steve never takes Ã¢â¬Å"noÃ¢â¬ for an answer For him Ã¢â¬Å"noÃ¢â¬ is only a comma and never a full stop. He will keep coming back till his objective is achieved. Years later his persistence was in ample display as he stubbornly stood his ground against internal opposition to his unconventional plan to turnaround Apple. 4)Unempathetic Empathy is the ability of an individual to understand Steve Jobs is known for pushing his employees to extreme limits. He is known for firing his employees often in an erratic fashion. This shows that he is unempathetic to people around him.
Friday, September 27, 2019
The Impact of Globalization on the Human Resource Management of Transnational Corporations (TNCs) - Dissertation Example This is carried out with a view of ensuring that these corporations are able to counter the challenges they experience in achieving their set objectives and remain competitive in their trade activities. This research proposal intends to utilize the following academic publications on assessing the impacts of globalization on the human resource management of transnational corporations. Key Academic Publications 1. Kayode, O 2012 Ã¢â¬ËImpact of globalization on human resource management,Ã¢â¬â¢ Science Journal of Business Management, vol. 2012, no. 3, pp. 1Ã¢â¬â4. The science journal by Kayode on the impact of globalization examines the impact of the work force on the human resource department of an organization with offices that are local or based in other countries. It discusses different issues that drive the aspect of globalization within the workforce along with the challenges that confront these departments on the global scene. The author, Kayode, begins by giving an introdu ction to the current trends of globalization and also provides the definition and the roles of the department. He suggests that it is in charge of managing the human resources in a transnational corporation. ... It will also help my research by highlighting the benefits, challenges and other issues that are affecting these departments. 2. Hunter, LW & Katz, HC 2012, Ã¢â¬ËThe impact of globalization on human resource management and employment relations in the US automobile and banking industries,Ã¢â¬â¢ The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1983-1998. The authors, Hunter and Katz, discuss the effects of globalization on employment relations and its differential impact throughout the different types of capitalism. They suggest that globalization affects different industries in specific ways. In addition, the journal discusses issues like job security, work organization, remuneration systems, and enterprise governance within transnational corporations in the US. It specifically addresses the issues which affect the transnational organizations that are headquartered in the US. The article additionally makes a comparison of the changes that occur in these two industries and their nature of correspondence to the American liberal economy (Hunter and Katz, 2012). The article will help my research by providing more insights into how employment relations in transnational corporations have been affected by the issue of globalization. 3. Friedman, BA 2007, Ã¢â¬ËGlobalization implications for human resource management role,Ã¢â¬â¢ Employee Responsibilities & Rights Journal, vol.1, no. 19, pp. 151Ã¢â¬â171. The article discusses the influences that globalization has on transnational corporations competing for customers who have very high expectations as regards the cost, quality and performance of the products they buy. It highlights the pressures that the globalization process has imposed on their human resource
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Take a Stand Letter - Essay Example I am a nursing student currently residing in Washington, D.C. I have observed some of the facts regarding nurses and their problems. I have witnessed the work of American Nursing Association about protection of nurses and their insurance. For a considerable length of time, the American Nurses Association has been supporting the social insurance changes that might provide insurance facilities to a wider segment of population to gain access to high caliber medical services. Due to the emergence and adoption of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), a large number of individuals with different health conditions, now have improved insurance coverage along with improved accessibility to essential and preventive utilities (Goodson, 2010). American Nursing Association (ANA) establishes that the level headed discussion of social insurance is still continuing and stays bound to instructing the nurturing open as to how the modifying framework affects the lives and health of the wider society. I am in a position to write to the government agency that regarding education of nurses, funds need to be raised as number of nurses required to maintain nursing workforce is being increased as proved by following: Countrys 3.1 million enrolled registered nurses (RNs) are the essential source of service to patients during the times of illness in their lives (Brewer & Rosenthal, 2008). Almost each individuals health awareness experience includes a RN. Any interaction of a common individual with the health care providers remains incomplete without the services of nurses. Accordingly, a sufficient supply of attendants is basic in furnishing our countrys requirement of providing adequate health care services. Medical attendants are needed to play an even greater part sometime later. But, nurture need to battle to get the assets they require. If the basic needs of this group of care-providers are not taken care of, there is a chance that the depiction of this sector
Industrial Crane Accidents - Essay Example To date, many reports relay crane-related accidents that could have been avoided if safety regulations were carefully considered. Industrial crane operators are required to apply strict safety procedures to carry out their job properly. Several regulations have been existent internationally to prevent accidents and hazards in every industrial workplace. Nevertheless, the current literature reflects a number of accidents related to the use of cranes in many workplaces around the world, both on land and offshore (i.e., gas mining platforms). Therefore, it is important to consider how such accidents have occurred in order to promote safety in the industrial workplace. Industrial crane accidents can happen anytime if workers practice negligence. The complex and heavy structure of the crane implies the high demand for safety during operation in the workplace. Relevantly, only certified workmen can handle industrial cranes, thus workers who would like to be crane operators should undergo t he specific training for operating cranes and other similar machines. A simple negligence on the part of the operator could lead to accidents, and later on, to permanent disability and even deaths. In such cases, the company will be held liable for the loss, not just the operator or the driver concerned could lose his job if the results of the investigations suggest negligence on his part. However, crane accidents have more bearing on the company because the company has the sole liability in such cases. A number of cases of negligence can be found in the literature, pointing either to the company or the crew as the one at fault. For instance, Jerner (2010) reports about a crane accident in which the crane boom separated from the mobile carrier. Based on the investigations, the turntable bearing did not function properly because it was improperly placed and showed signs of being worn out. Notably, the first problem that reveals improper placing of the turntable could be attributed to the staff, whereas the second cause, which is the worn out characteristics of the turntable implies the liability of the company. The use of old and worn out turntable can be attributed to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s cost-cutting measures. In another accident report by Jerner (2010), the same problem of substandard crane parts was detected as the bolts of the boom attached to three crane boom sections broke, thus separating the attached sections from the main boom. The accident occurred during operation as the crane was used to remove a water tank crane boom from a water tower. Although there were no casualties, the accident expectedly caused delay in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operation. In a report made by the Iowa FACE Program (n.d.) of a 1997 accident that occurred in a wind farm in Iowa, the author noted the shifting of the tower-type crane whose outrigger pad slid to the northwest, leading to the death of the 36-yearÃ¢â¬âold crane operator. The crew was about to install generators on a windmill when the accident happened. The owner of the mill, who was situated perpendicular to the windmill and saw the whole accident reported that the crane was tilted a little before the accident happened.Ã
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Phase 2 Individual Project - Assignment Example The primary objective of this case study is (a) to define fixed, variable, and mixed costs; (b) to determine cost behaviour patterns, and (c) to explain how these different patterns affect operating and pricing decisions. II.Cost Analysis a. Definition of Variable Costs + Example All expenses incurred that increase as the Production Output and Sales increases and decreases whenever the Production Output and Sales decreases should be considered as variable costs. Albrecht, Steve W., et.al.(2010, p.1062) defined variable costs in a more general way by saying that they are the costs that change in total in direct proportion to changes in activity level.. In the SAC operations, an example of the variable cost would be Raw Materials. The higher the demand for the product which would be evident in the increase in Sales volume, the higher the required Production Output, and a corresponding set of Raw Materials will be needed to produce the desired order quantity. b. Definition of Fixed Cost s + Example All expenses that are incurred whether or not operations are at high or low level should be called Fixed Costs. Rich, J.S., et. al. (2009, p.757) defined fixed cost as constant costs Ã¢â¬Å"within the relevant range as the level of of output increases or decreases.Ã¢â¬ At SAC, an example of that fixed cost is Depreciation Expense Ã¢â¬â Factory. Each month, whether or not the factory produces for high demand or for low demand, the value of depreciation expense will not change. c. Definition of Mixed Costs + Example Some costs known as mixed costs are made up of a combination of fixed cost and variable cost. Weygandt, J.J. et.al. (2009, p.209) teaches the need to separate these two in order to properly perform a cost-volume-profit analysis. Kinney, M.R. and Raiborn, C.A. (2012, p.70) also refers to the Ã¢â¬Å"high-low methodÃ¢â¬ of determinine variable costs per unit and then separating it from fixed costs. That is, the formula to determine the portion that is var iable in a mixed costshould be as follows: Cost at High Level of Operations less Cost at Low Level Operations divided by High Activity Level expressed in volume of production or sales less Low Activity Level also expressed in volume of production or sales. The result will be the variable cost per unit within that mixed cost. Variable Costs may then be computed for its total and then separated from the total mixed cost in order to arrive at the fixed cost total within the mixed cost. In the case of SAC, there are data from two years, 2005 and 2006. Cost of Goods sold in 2005 was 50.81% whereas in 2006, the percentage increased to 59.30%. This means Cost of Goods Sold (CGS) may not be considered as 100% variable costs. A closer look at the details of CGS in the 2006 journal entries shows the following accounts: Cost of Goods Sold Raw Materials Labor Overhead Classification: Fixed, Variable, Mixed Supplies-Factory 3,500 MC Insurance-Factory 800 FC Indirect Labor 16,000 MC Factory Salar ies 12,500 FC Factory Property Tax 7,500 FC Maintenance Expense- Factory 8,700 FC Depreciation Expense-Factory 1,600 FC Utilities- Factory 3,650 MC Raw Materials RM, beg.=19,360 Purchases=33,710 RM, end= 10,000 RM, used 43,070 WIP, beg.= 1,800 RM processed = 41,270 WIP,end= 7,000 FG added=34,270 FG,beg.= 25,360 FG,total= 59,630 FG,end= 36,360 FG,sold= 23,270 VC Direct Labor 8,500 VC Selling Expenses 1,560 MC Admin.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Business plan - Essay Example Fakiri will manage day-to-day operations of the business. Both have strong management and administration skills. In addition, Ms. Fakiri has experience as she began working with children as baby sitter when she was at the University of Reading. Those skills support Master MinderÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. The UKÃ¢â¬â¢s changing demographics have led to families becoming more fragmented with parents of young children often finding they have little or no close family support when they start a family. But professional babysitting agencies are an emerging business trend as they provide a cheap form of childcare and represent an attractive option for busy mothers who need help not only with childcare but also with light house hold duties. Childcare provision is a clearly segmented market, as a result of legislation1 and constantly changing market needs. British parents pay high childcare bills and despite Government initiatives and tax changes, there is a growing need for the expansion of private sector services. Service, price and reputation are essential success factors in the childcare services industry. Master Minders will compete well in this industry by offering competitive prices, high-quality childcare services and by maintaining an excellent reputation with parents. Our target customers are dual-income, upper-middle-class families mainly managers and senior officers who value the quality of education for their children. We will start our business on the First January 2009, starting with an initial enrollment of 20 baby sitters. Our first office will be based in Reading. We project healthy revenues and a high net profit for the four first years. The long term vision includes a number of offices through out UK. The high profit will help the company to achieve its long-term goal which is to franchise and/or to become multi-location. Master MinderÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is to contribute to the community by filling a need for qualified baby sitters. Master Minders only works with
Monday, September 23, 2019
Issue brief - Case Study Example A physician or a director who has an MD degree must supervise the nurses or physicians carrying out laser treatment (Williams, 27). Since Dr. Goyzueta is qualified to be a director and an owner it is wise for him to venture into the spa thus should target a better location. Most of the fatal cases reported in facial surgeries have been associated with New York spas. This claim means that most clients are not willing to risk their lives in plastic surgeries in these spas. This proves as a challenge to generate customers of the best paying services in spas. To ensure that the business becomes successful Dr. Goyzueta, should start his spa in New Haven where there are no such fatal cases reported since he will gain more clients. New YorkÃ¢â¬â¢s population comprises of younger people as compared to that of New Haven. This is against spas services since past researches claim that 92% of spas customers are above 35 years (Williams, 22). According to previous researches that prove women spending almost 70% of their earnings on their appearances, the physical appearance among most of the females in the United States is one of the most important things (Williams, 22). This makes it effective for spa business where the population has more women than men do. Most of these women are working and receive relatively higher wages in comparison to the population in Manhattan, which is low populated and the spa services are not much of a necessity (Merriam-websters Geographical Dictionary, 2007, p. 34). The traffic in the Northeastern part of the United States is heavy, making it effective for people to have massages during the rush hour thus creating business opportunity for the medical spa. The medical spas laws in the Northeastern part of the United States is lenient in the essence that the use of lacer light can be performed by advanced nurses. The
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Digital Libraries Essay Ashley Tipton Digital Libraries Introduction A simple definition of a digital library is a library where collections are stored in digital formats instead of physical formats and accessible via computers. The content can then be accessed locally, as in within a library, or remotely such as from other places on a college campus or from a users home. Many people believe that digital libraries are the future. There are also those that still hold on to the thought that the traditional brick and mortar building is the way a library is supposed to be and that moving to the digital real is not the direction a library should be heading. History The information revolution is one of the marvels of the 20th century. We are now living in an information society where almost everyone around us has a computer, a smartphone, and is connected to the Internet. As our society has become more and more connected, libraries have also started to become more digitized. Library automation came into popularity in the early 1950s. It started with punched card applications to library technical services operations. In 1965, Licklider coined the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"library of the futureÃ¢â¬ to refer to his vision of a fully computer-based library and then in 1978, F.W. Lancaster wrote of the Ã¢â¬Å"paperless libraryÃ¢â¬ (Harter, 1996). Other terms later on that were used to describe the library of the future were Ã¢â¬Å"electronic library,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"virtual library,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"library without walls,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"bionic libraryÃ¢â¬ (Harter, 1996). The term Ã¢â¬Å"digital libraryÃ¢â¬ came to be from the Digital Libraries Initiative. In 1994, six universities in the United States were granted 24 million dollars for digital library research. This was brought on by the sudden boom of the Internet. Ã¢â¬Å"Digital libraryÃ¢â¬ is the name that was most widely adopted by academics, researchers, and librarians and is used to describe the process of digitizing information resources. Digitization According to Ram Nath Maurya, there is a stress for three things in the digital world (Maurya, 2011): Ã¢â¬ ¢ Awareness of information which gives the breath of vision. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Awareness of technology which gives the power to make the visions manifest. Awareness of needs provide the insight to use professional skills and talents to greater effect. The meaning of this is that it is important for the user to have information that is easily locatable and easily accessible. Nowadays, library patrons have become information conscious and no longer want to wait and go to the library to find what they need. They want to access it access the information electronically. The process of digitizing implies the production of a digital surrogate for a physical object (Unsworth, 2004). There are many different items in libraries that are digitized. This ranges from serials that can be found either in print or online to rare books and archives that are now being preserved in a digital format. There are many positive outcomes that come from digitizing parts of a librarys collection. There is less cost in reshelving the item. The item is simultaneously available to multiple users. The item does not have to be replaced, since it is not being used and there is no chance of it being lost. Also, if it is a rare item, it can be preserved more easily as it will be less frequently handled. Why Go Digital? The most valuable aspect of the digital library is its reduction in cost. There are many fees that are negated such as staff pay, book maintenance, rent, and additional books. This makes the cost of the digital library much less to maintain than that of a traditional library. Also, increased reduction in the use of paper has a positive impact on the environment. Environmental scientists all over the world favor digital libraries to help reduce paper usage. Libraries that have a digital presence can be reached all over the world, thus allowing the library to have a far greater audience beyond their local community. Their collection can be shared and accessed from anywhere. As distance education becomes more popular, it is even more important for libraries to have an online presence. Students who might not be able to physically access their school librarys collection can instead find what they need on their website. Many libraries are offering a vary large amount of databases containing full-text journals and also electronic books. The interlibrary loan program allows students to order books from their own school and other libraries without leaving their home. The role of the librarian in a digital library is still vastly important. They are needed to package and repackage information. Librarians set up the proxies and open-URLs. They do electronic publishing, provide reference instruction, and teach patrons how to use electronic resources. Also, there is always more information that needs to be digitized. Disadvantages of Digital Libraries There are many threats to the nature of digital libraries. Computer viruses are a danger if libraries are not careful to protect their hardware and software. Also, the high initial cost of infrastructure such as the hardware, software, network, and IT professionals can be a downside and then also the cost to maintain and upgrade when needed. Standardization is another issue that libraries can face when moving to a digital format. Each library is different and therefore it is extremely likely that each library will have a very different way of digitizing their collection and presenting their information online. Another potential problem is copyright. Digital libraries have to find a way to properly distribute information without violating copyright law. The copyright of the author has to be protected as items are digitized and put into an online collection. Future of Digital Libraries The future trend for libraries is to keep moving toward a digital format. Daniel Akst, the author of The Webster Chronicle, sums it up in one simple statement: Ã¢â¬Å"the future of libraries-and of information-is digital. Ã¢â¬ He states, Ã¢â¬Å"All the problems associated with digital libraries are wrapped up in archiving,Ã¢â¬ and goes on to state, Ã¢â¬Å"if in 100 years people can still read your article, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll have solved the problemÃ¢â¬ . Computer storage continues to grow at an exponential rate and the cost keeps going down. It is believed that eventually, given the current advancement of technology, a person will be able to virtually access all recorded information. There are many large scale digitization projects underway at places such as Google, the Million Book Project, and Internet Archive. The technology behind scanners and the digitization techniques also keeps improving. There have been recent advancements in how books are handled and presentation technologies such as optical character recognition. Libraries will continue to become more equipped to digitize their own collections and share them with the world. Bibliography Akst, Daniel. The Webster Chronicle. New York: Bluehen, 2002. Print. Harter, S. (1996, September). What is a digital library? definitions, content, and issues. A paper presented at KOLISS DL 96: international conference on digital libraries and information services for the 21st century, Seoul, Korea. Retrieved from http://php. indiana. edu/~harter/koreapaper. htm Lagoze, C. , Krafft, D. , Payette, S. , Jesuroga, S. (2005). What is a digital library anymore, anyway?. D-Lib Magazine, 11(11), Retrieved from http://www. dlib. org/dlib/november05/lagoze/11lagoze. html Maurya, R. (2011). Digital library and digitization. International Journal of Information Dissemination Technology. , 1(4), 228-331. Retrieved from http://web. ebscohost. com. proxy. lib. fsu. edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=7hid=9[emailprotected] Unsworth, J. (2004, May 17). The value of digitization for libraries and humanities scholarship. Retrieved from http://people. lis. illinois. edu/~unsworth/newberry. 04. htmlÃ'Å½
Friday, September 20, 2019
Tektronix Inc Global Erp Implementation Information Technology Essay The present business environment is changing dramatically and is mainly characterized by increasing competition, rising customer expectations, expanding markets and shorter product life cycles. This has put tremendous pressure on companies to reduce costs across the value chain and inventory, provide better customer service and reliable delivery dates, improved quality and efficiently manage the demand, production and supply across the globe. In order to remain competitive, in the light of these pressures, firms are exploring different ways of doing business and also realizing the importance to improve their internal processes and practices. It is crucial for organisations to share timely and accurate business information with their customers, suppliers and distributors and in order to meet this objective firms are aggressively using enterprise resources planning (ERP) systems. ERP system provides two main benefits. One, it provides a unified enterprise view of the organization. The entire information from human resources, accounting, finance, sales, inventory, logistics and supply chain management are integrated by ERP. This integration allows firms to respond rapidly to changing market and competitive forces, efficiently manage supply chain and inventory thereby realizing cost savings. Second, the ERP acts as a central information database that allows information to be stored, processed, analyzed and monitored. This prevents information and communications gaps thereby allowing better co-operation and co-ordination across the various departments and functional units in an organization (Umble et al, 2003; Bingi et al, 1999). The ERP system, by providing timely and accurate information, aids in the strategic decision making functions of the top management. Although the ERP system can be considered as one of the strategic tools used by organisations to realize their business goals and objectives, its implementation is a cause for concern. ERP systems are highly complex systems and its implementation is usually a difficult and costly exercise fraught with risks. This essay evaluates the global ERP implementation at Tektronix, a manufacturer of electronic test equipments. The essay begins by briefly outlining the state of affairs at Tektronix prior to ERP implementation and can be considered as driving factors behind the adoption. The implementation has been analyzed in different stages business plan and Vision, requirements analysis, software selection, implementation planning and implementation. Such an approach will provide more clarity about the adoption process, the critical success factors and risk mitigation. NEED FOR CHANGE AT TEKTRONIX Tektronix, in spite of being the world leader in most of the businesses that it was catering to, was limited in terms of flexibility of its operations and growth opportunities. In order to overcome these limitations the top management felt that the organization had to be restructured starting with information technology (IT) infrastructure. The IT infrastructure at Tektronix was a complete mess. They had over 450 legacy systems only in the United States, apart from the systems used in the 60 countries in which they were operating. There was no standardization of these systems or business processes globally. Inventory tracking was a problem and sales order processing had to be carried out multiple times in different systems which resulted in increasing processing time, reduced customer service and order errors. The financial systems were not very efficient with multiple charts of accounts across the company and therefore taking weeks to close the books at the end of the month. It was also challenging to retrieve business performance information such as the profitability with regards to each product or division. It can be inferred from these business challenges that the driving forces for ERP adoption at Tektronix were the need for business process integration, common template for IT, unified enterprise view of informatio n, operational cost savings and increased customer responsiveness. BUSINESS PLAN, VISION, TOP MANAGEMENT SUPPORT AND COMMITMENT One of the most critical success factors for any ERP implementation is the creation of a clear and compelling vision identifying goals and objectives along with their alignment with information systems strategy (Umble et al, 2003; Finney Corbett, 2007). Along with this vision, the business plan should provide the justification for the investment based on reliable data and reasonable assumptions (Nah et al, 2001; Kraemmerand et al, 2003). In case of Tektronix, the vision was provided by the CFO and it stressed on three key aspects -seperablity of business, leveraging shared services and a plain vanilla system, where possible. With regards to ERP investment justification, Tektronix did not spent time carrying out detailed return on investment (ROI) analysis. The decision to adopt ERP system was based on the judgment of few senior managers, in particular the CFO. One of the risks of such an action, and which did occur, is costly implementations. A detailed budgeting and ROI analysis wo uld have put a control on the cash outflow for the implementation. Top management support and commitment is another critical success factor and is required throughout the implementation by way of monitoring progress and providing direction (Murray Coffin, 2001). They play a key role in the allocation of resources apart from legitimizing the new goals, objectives and business process changes. Their support also helps to reduce user resistance which is likely to be present in large transformational projects such as an ERP implementation (Nah et al, 2001; Sumner, 2003). In case of Tektronix there was continuous support and approval from the CFO, divisional heads and senior managers during the project life cycle. REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS Most of the times, the reasons cited for the abandonment of ERP projects is because firms realize, midway, that the new system does not support some of their business processes (Koch et al, 1999). One of the reasons for this is the failure to conduct a detailed requirement analysis prior to ERP adoption. As part of this analysis, functional requirements should depict the various data requirements, process linkages and work flows. In Tektronix implementation, it is clear from the case study that the management had not carried out detailed requirement analysis prior to ERP adoption. Although they managed to have a successful ERP adoption, this was a very risk approach. SOFTWARE SELECTION The software selection process at Tektronix can be analyzed from three key aspects buy-versus-build decision, the software selection process and finally, the single vendor approach to enterprise systems integration. Firms adopting an ERP system face the decision to whether build the system in-house or to purchase packaged software and this depends on a number of factors, one of which is the level of technical expertise and ERP development knowledge existing in-house (Sawyer, 2000). Firms involved in the in-house development of the ERP systems face the risk of cost and schedule overruns and in some cases the end system not meeting the user requirements (Lucas Jr et al, 1988). The decision to go for packaged system, in Tektronix, can be considered to be a wise decision because of two main reasons. Firstly, Tektronix had no experience in developing IS systems. It would not have been possible for them to develop a robust system with the same efficiency as a package software developer, who could leverage from its RD and varied implementation experiences. Secondly, Tektronix did not have the necessary technical skills, which was also evident during the implementation stage. With regards to software selection process, Tektronix spent very little time. The decision to implement Oracle ERP solution was based mainly on the experiences of the CFO and CIO. Very little resources were spent in evaluating the alternatives in terms of features and costs. An ERP system, by default, will impose considerable influence on a firms strategy, organization and culture. Some of the ERP failures can be attributed to the incompatibility that exist between the new systems technical capabilities and needs vis-Ã -vis the organizations existing business processes (Umble et al, 2003). It is therefore critical that the ERP selection process is conducted with great care. The selection between the single vendor and best of breed approaches to systems integration is debatable. Both the approaches have risks and are considered to be complex with regards to their scale, scope and business process reengineering requirements (Shehab et al, 2004). The best of breed strategy can offer the best functionality for each module, but its implementation is complex because of the need for establishing interfaces between the disparate systems (Bingi et al, 1999; Shehab et al, 2004). The cost and the need for extensive training to maintain these interfaces is also likely to be high (Light et al, 2001). In case of single vendor strategy, it might not have all functionalities but it will easier to implement (Mabert et al, 2001). The other benefits include simplified contracting and relationship management as well as a single point of control for all software related problems (Shehab et al, 2004). Taking into consideration Tektronix growth strategy as well as the scale a nd complexity of the ERP implementation, it can be argued that the single vendor strategy seemed suitable. It mitigated, to a great extent, the integration, maintenance and upgrade related risks likely to be present in multiple package implementations. IMPLEMENTATION PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION An important activity, during implementation planning, which plays a crucial role in the success of an ERP implementation, is the creation of a steering committee consisting of senior management and end users (Somers Nelson, 2004). The role of the steering committee is mainly to determine the project scope and objectives prior to implementation and to ensure adherence to it (Parr Shanks, 2000). In case of Tektronix, the steering committee refined the companys vision and developed the global business model along with business process change and guiding principles in order to provide clear direction for the implementation. The steering committees portrayal of top management support and commitment was also instrumental in overcoming resistances. Effective project organization and management is another critical success factor in the adoption of an ERP (Umble et al, 2003). It is also necessary to ensure that the project team is well balanced consisting of members from different divisions or functional units possessing both business and technical skills (Finney Corbett, 2007). In case of Tektronix ERP implementation, there was an efficient project management team consisting of representatives from different functional and geographical locations. Apart from this, the members had a combination of business and technical skills which made it easy for to identify and resolve issues quickly. In this context it would be appropriate to stress the importance of a project champion; who oversees the entire implementation process, helps to achieve consensus and plays a major role in handling organizational change. This project champion should be a high level executive with transformational leadership qualities and should have the authorit y to set goals and legitimize change (Nah et al, 2001; Ngai et al, 2008). The CFO as a project champion can be considered one of the success factors behind Tektronix implementation. In case of large scale ERP implementations, most companies fall into the trap of a big bang seduction. Introducing the ERP system at one strike can be extremely risky and can affect the success of the project (Vogt, 2002). The overall strategy used by Tektronix for the ERP implementation can be considered to be incremental approach. It was a single change program consisting of several waves or implementations with each implementation lead by a senior executive and addressing change in a particular division or geographic region. Although the different locations were managed independently, they were monitored by a central project team to ensure a timely and smooth change. The advantage of this was that it gave regular feedback regarding the implementation thereby allowing fast corrective measures in case of any deviations, provided vital learnings which could be used in subsequent installations and allowed flexibility in project scheduling. Apart from this, each successful implementati on acted as a proof of concept (Watson Haley, 1998) for the ERP, which helped to keep the team morale high as well as to ensure continued senior management support and commitment. In case of global rollout, again the incremental approach was followed, with the initial implementation being carried out across Europe. This allowed the project team to learn and address majority of the global implementation challenges, which proved beneficial in the subsequent implementations. Although the overall approach was incremental, it was interlaced with big bang approach where possible. The incremental approach helped to overcome the challenges arising from geographical distances and the lack of business synergies that existed between some countries. It was also instrumental in managing the language difficulties that existed in some countries. One of the risk factors associated with an ERP implementation is the failure of adopting company to redesign the business processes to align with the new ERP system. Rather than redesigning, these companies customize the software to fit the existing inefficient business processes, leading to cost overruns, delays and project failures (Sumner, 2003; Ngai et al, 2008; Somers Nelson, 2004; Nah et al, 2001). These risk factors were addressed to great extent in the Tektronix implementation. As part of business process redesign it carried out a number of activities. It standardized the charts-of-accounts, eliminated existing complex transfer pricing practices and changed the financial transaction processes. Apart from this, as part of organizational restructuring all European country managers were removed, English was declared as the single language for business within Tektronix and local business practices were standardized. With regards to customization, Tektronix undertook it mainly be cause of two reasons the differences in business operations between the divisions necessitated it and the Oracle ERP system did not have all the functionality required; a fallout of not carrying out the software/vendor process diligently. Change management programs are an important part of organizational transformation processes such as ERP adoption. Although it is mentioned here under planning and implementation, it is usually initiated at the start of the project and continues throughout the project lifecycle. An enterprise wide ERP implementation such as at Tektronix is likely to cause changes to the organizations culture and structure (Nah et al, 2001). If users are not prepared for such a change, the likely consequences will be user resistance, chaos and denial. To avoid such a situation the users need to be involved during the design and implementation of the ERP system. This should be augmented with education, training and re-skilling, which will help them in understanding the need for change and the associated implications on their job (Umble et al, 2003; Al-Mashari et al, 2003; Kraemmerand et al, 2003). In case of Tektronix, there are indications from the case study that the change management was not handled effectively. One instance was the resistance to change faced during the implementation of Order Management/Accounts Receivable (OMAR) at CPID division and the project team having to reiterate the need for change. Another instance was during the implementation of OMAR at VND division. It was post implementation that VND realized the level of resources and the skill set required. Although VND managed to have a successful implementation, this could have been risky leading to user resistance and chaos. The insufficient training of the end users is considered as one of the risk factors associated with an ERP implementation (Sumner, 2003). Based on the approach of using power or super users, it can be argued that Tektronix followed cascaded training to mitigate the risks arising from insufficient training of end users. The risk arising from the lack of internal expertise, technical and functional, was mitigated by the deployment of external consultants. In order to avoid the risks and surprises arising from the integration of complex business operations with the ERP system, Tektronix pursued a vigorous testing program simulating live work environment. LESSONS LEARNED FROM THIS IMPLEMENTATION There are some key learnings, based on the above evaluation. Firstly, it is necessary to carry out a detailed requirement of analysis prior to an ERP implementation. This will ensure that a proper understanding of existing business process and benefits that can be realized from the adoption of the new system. Secondly, the ROI analysis and budgeting apart from providing the economic justification for the project will also help to control the implementation costs. Third, in case of software/vendor selection sufficient resources must be spent in comparing features and costs between the various alternatives. This can avoid customizations at a later stage. In their article, Umble and Haft (2003) recommends a selection process which includes identification of potential vendors and evaluation criteria, creating the request for proposal, evaluation of the proposals, choosing the vendor/software, negotiation of contract, pre-implementation pilot test and finally, establishing service level a greements. Fourth, the presence of a steering committee consisting of representatives from the senior management and end users along with the appointment of a project champion can have considerable impact on the success of the implementation. Fifth, the lack of business process reengineering coupled with excessive levels of customizations can lead to cost overruns, delays and project failure. Lastly, incremental approach is suitable in the case of large scale ERP implementations as it provides feedbacks and quick gains which acts as a proof of concept along with the learning which can be utilized in subsequent installations. CONCLUSION It is clear that although the implementation at Tektronix was expensive it was a successful implementation. This was due to the presence of a number of critical success factors along with risk mitigation approaches that were followed. The presence of executive sponsorship during the project life cycle, along with a transformation leader such as the CFO as the project champion was critical to the success of this project. In terms of global rollout, avoiding the big bang seduction and following the incremental approach was a wise decision. However, there are few areas such as the requirement analysis, software/vendor selection process and change management where the project team did not carry out detailed analysis or execution. Focus on some of these areas could have made avoided some of the problems that were faced during the implementation. In a nutshell, the successful adoption of ERP at Tektronix helped it to overcome many of the inefficiencies which were present earlier and in the process enabled it to become much more agile and flexible.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
If you know where and when to look, you can treat yourself to a colourful display of atmospheric haloes, spots and pillars. These images can tell you something about the clouds overhead and possible changes in the weather. All of these images are created by light shining through cirrostratus clouds. These clouds occur at an altitude of 6,000-12,000 metres. They appear as a thin sheet or layer (strata) that is pure white. The layer of cloud is so thin (only 100-450 metres) that is doesn't obscure the sun or moon, so you should be able to see your shadow. Cirrostratus is made of many types of ice crystals. However, four crystal shapes are responsible for producing most of the commonly see haloes-plate crystals, columns, capped columns and bullets. The most obvious halo is found around the sun. If the layer of cirrostratus is extensive, you'll see an entire ring. Within the layer of cloud, sunlight is striking and passing through the sides of randomly-oriented ice crystals. As the sunlight passes through each crystal, the light changes direction, or refracts. The radius of the hale depends on the amount of change in the direction of the sun's light. Usually this is 22 degrees. Since the sun is 1/2 of a degree across, the radius of the halo is 44 sun-widths. Occasionally you may see a second halo at 46 degrees from the sun (that is, with a radius of 92 sun-widths). This is produced by sunlight passing through both the side and bottom of each crystal. Moonlight will also produce a halo, around the moon, with the proper layer of cirrostatus. Another common optical effect is known as "mock suns" or "sun dogs" or "parhelia" (Greek for "with the sun"). These bright spots on either side of the sun, outside of the halo, occur when sunlight passes through the sides of capped columns, bullets and plate crystals, when these crystals are arranged with their sides vertical. The crystals wobble, diffusing and smearing the colours of the mock sun. You can see haloes and mock suns more clearly if you block out your view of the real sun by holding your hand in front of it at arm's length. Another spectactular optical effect is the solar pillar. This is a vertical shaft of light the same colour as the sun stretching upwards from the sun and is most often seen at sunset or sunrise. It's produced by sunlight reflecting of the base of plate and capped column crystals in the clouds.
When did American Literature begin? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -with the Native Americans Three dominant characteristics/themes of Native American Literature? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 1. Relationship with the land Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2. Belief in the Great Manito Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 3. Use of natural images How did Columbus describe the New World? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -astonishing, colorful, marvelous speed of the canoes, a paradise Identify: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -Bay Psalm Book: first book published in America Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -manito: spiritual forces Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -Walum Olum: painted record Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -allusion: reference to something Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -concrete language: short, forceful, cleaner Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -conceit: controlling image Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -analogy: comparison Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -simile: direct comparison using like or as Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -metaphor: saying it is something its not Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -antonyms: two opposite words Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -irony: opposite of what's supposed to happen Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -sarcasm: low form of irony Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -Great Awakening: fervent revival of religious dedication Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -pictographs: word pictures Compare and contrast the literature of Puritans and the southern colonies. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -Puritans: simple, religious, practical, examining of spiritual selves, communicated ideas clearly, explained Biblical interpretation Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -Southerners: flashy, flowery, ornate, complicated, decorative What is the purpose of Ã¢â¬ËA Description of New England?' How does the author go about meeting this purpose? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -to get people to move to New England; exaggerates the good, doesn't mention the bad What does TULIP stand for? Explain each point. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -Total Depravity/inability Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -Unconditional election/selection Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -Limited Atonement Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -Irresistible grace Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -Perseverance/preservation for the saints Identify the conceit of Ã¢â¬ËIn Reference to Her Children' and Ã¢â¬ËHuswifery' Ã Ã Ã &nb... ...ial encounter with the Devil, wife's involvement, terms of tom's deal, occupation, Tom's fate. Translate Thanatopsis. Summarize Bryant's thanatopsis. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -Ã¢â¬Ëview of death,' Bryant's view was deaath is one with nature, be with other great people who have gone before, etc. Define: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -meter: regular rhythm in poetry, unit of meter Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -foot of poetry: stressed/unstressed syllables/ one stressed two unstressed syllables How is the Black Cat an example of Romantic Literature? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -focus on self and individual, fascination with the supernatural, gothic Compare and contrast the following views on the dark side of humanity: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -Death Instinct/Spirit o Perverseness: Freud and PoeÃ¢â¬âdark side is constantly present Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -Sinful Nature: ChristianityÃ¢â¬âthere is a way out According to Montressor, what are the two requirements of meaningful revenge? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -can't be consumed by it, once you've taken your revenge, drop it Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -don't let the person know you're upset with them and seeking revenge
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Shakespeare's Macbeth is about the change in Macbeth's character and his inner motives and feelings. Throughout the play the audience bears witness to Macbeth's thoughts and feelings in his soliloquies, speech, and asides. One often wonders whether it is fate, the witches, or the people around him that compel him to think in certain ways and influence his decisions. It is only his own character from the beginning, however, that allows him to make some of the choices that he does and commit horrific deed during the play. Macbeth is a weak, selfish, traitor, as shown through his submission to Lady Macbeth's demands, his betrayal of Duncan and Banquo, and his inability to admit wrongdoing or accept the consequences of his actions. Macbeth demonstrates weakness when he gives in to Lady Macbeth?s will and follows through with her crazed schemes. Lady Macbeth is a greedy person with grand desires, but one who finds it hard to follow through with the nefarious deeds that are associated with accomplishing her goals. She often wishes to be more of a man, calling upon the devil to help her ignore her conscious and give her cold blood. She uses Macbeth as a tool to accomplish doing these things she cannot without having to do them on her own. However, Macbeth is also reluctant and Lady Macbeth has to influence him to kill Duncan. When learning of Lady Macbeth?s plot to take Duncan?s crown, Macbeth contemplates all the reasons it should not be done. He admits it would be suicide, and that he has no reason to do it. Macbeth decides he will let luck and fate decide whether he will be crowned. ?I have no spur/ To prick the sides of my intent,? (I, ii, 26-27) says Macbeth. But soon afterwards he is coerced by Lady Macbeth ?s taunts and critici... ...ing himself up honorably. Through these statements and Macbeth?s fight until his death, he has demonstrated a lack of regret for the things he has done and the inability to repent for his actions. Shown by his mental insecurity and weakness, treachery against god and country, and reluctance to confess fault, Macbeth has proved a pathetic and selfish person who ultimately gets what he deserves. Macbeth?s character demonstrates all the qualities of a criminal mind. People often find themselves fighting against problems they have created for themselves through their own unwise actions, and losing in the end like Macbeth does because they cannot not change their ways soon enough or aren?t willing to. If one chooses to be selfish, greedy, and overconfident and betrays the ones surrounding him without regret, then he will find himself fighting alone to the bitter end.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
There are some aspects of human behavior and mental processes that would not be ethical to study even if the participants freely consented to be studied. Ethical standards with regard to experimentation are subject to governmental regulations where federal funding is apparent (Kornblum, pg. 41). The text lists 5 key ethical issues revolving around human psychological research, including: Freedom from coercion, informed consent, limited deception, adequate debriefing, and confidentiality (Lahay, pg. 48). According to Lahay, requirements for institutions conducting research include approval from a board of outside scientists (pg. 48). I believe there are certain aspects of behavior and mental processes that should not be studied even with the participantÃ¢â¬â¢s approval. Study of subjects that were involved with committing crimes would be at the top of the list. For example, a study involving naturalistic observation of a kleptomaniac in action seems to me as unethical practice. Whil e the observer is not taking part in the crime, he is not actively preventing it either. Furthermore, there may be a possibility that the said criminalÃ¢â¬â¢s need to steal is heightened due to the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s requirement for consent. Another example of studying behavior or mental processes that may present itself unethical might involve studying children. Even though parental consent may be given the child would not necessarily have to be informed of the study. An example might be a study where a badly behaved child is seated next to a compliant child to see if the behaviors change. Regardless of the effect on the badly behaved child, the compliant child could quite possibly experience higher levels of stress or anxiety. I think that good example of not ethical experiment would be Ã¢â¬Å"little Albert.Ã¢â¬ John Watson, the founder of behaviorism, conducted an influential early study of generalization. Watson and Rosaline Rayner examined the generalization of condition fear in an 11 month old boy Albert. Like many babies Albert was initially unafraid of a white rat. Then the Watson and Rayner paired the presentation of the rat with a loud, starting sound. Albert did show fear in response the loud noise. Five days later, boy was exposed to other stimulus that resembled the rat in being white and furry. AlbertÃ¢â¬â¢s fear response to other white, furry objects (rabbits, a dog). My opinion is that children should not be used in research. Another type of experiments, that I think are unethical, are Near-death experience Ã¢â¬â is the perception reported by a person who nearly died or who was clinically dead and revived. They are somewhat common, especially since the development of cardiac resuscitatation techniques. For example, in one, a woman accurately described a surgical instrument she had not seen previously, as well as conversation that occurred while she was clinically dead. I think that death or dieing is something that we as a human should not be involved in.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Social networking sites can be defined as an online platform where people create their own profiles, share them with the public, and communicate with other users on the Internet. The increasing popularity of these sites affects our lives in many aspects and the most important one is the privacy issue. It can easily be observed that social networking sites are a real threat for the userÃ¢â¬â¢s personal privacy. First of all, there are some threats arising from security vulnerability on social networking sites. Generally, users give a lot of personal information to become a member of these sites and it is easy to access this information for hackers and identity thieves. For example identity thieves who could gain very private information such as birth name and date, addresses, phone numbers and relationship status on social networking sites can verify themselves as being the profile owner. Therefore, they can access the usersÃ¢â¬â¢ credit card number and steal their money easily. Moreover, identity thieves cause not only loss of money but also loss of personal respect and good name. They can use the information to communicate with usersÃ¢â¬â¢ other friends in order to obtain their information too. Rebecca Sweeny (2011) summarizes that usersÃ¢â¬â¢ lack of awareness of sharing information helps hackers and identity thieves to steal their money and damage good names. (as cited in Acquisti& Gross, 2006) The second threat arising from security vulnerabilities is marketing companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ accessibility to usersÃ¢â¬â¢ information without permission. For instance, spamming the users with unsolicited advertising contents can be annoying in most cases. Furthermore, the companies sometimes obtain personal information and spread them with other companies and individuals in order to make advertisements more effective. Secondly, people share very private information on social networking sites, as Nico Reiher(2009) mentions, Ã¢â¬Å" If the receiver of the information is not trustworthy, the user does not have a chance to track or remove this information back into trustworthy hands.Ã¢â¬ causes some serious troubles. Firstly, people tend to announce where they are at that moment and what they are doing, therefore, they share real-time location based information on social networking sites. To illustrate, people who share their locations and especially notify others that they are not at home on social networking sites such as Foursquare, provide an opportunity to thieves to rob their houses. In addition, Facebook which is the most popular and preferred social networking sites, also enables people to share that much private information with the Ã¢â¬Å"check-inÃ¢â¬ application. Secondly, sharing awkward and embarrassing information or political views on social networking sites lead to trouble in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s social and professional lives. For example, some companies prefer to look to social networking sites in order to get information about prospective employees. According to SNAPR project team, Ã¢â¬Å"Even future employers,Ã¢â¬ ¦, may be able to view your posted information and draw specific conclusion about you as an individual, which could have the negative effects. Ã¢â¬Å" Moreover, disgraceful posts on usersÃ¢â¬â¢ profile which can be seen also by instructors or bosses will cause loss of reputation in educational or business lives. Those who are not in favor of this opinion seem to believe that social networking sites are safe and information is inaccessible for the public. They think that there are some restrictive privacy settings which allow users to specify who can see their information and profiles. Moreover, there are firewalls which help to prevent usersÃ¢â¬â¢ information from hackers and identity thieves. Although it may be true to a certain extent, this claim is not strong enough, because these settings are not default without usersÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge. Generally, users are not fully informed about privacy issues and share all information without any restriction. In addition, they are unaware of how much information they share to the public. There is not any explanation about the amount of the disseminative information. To sum up, the usersÃ¢â¬â¢ unawareness of the privacy settings on social networking sites and their insensibility on this issue cause a lot of troubles. In addition, digital informationÃ¢â¬â¢s easy accessibility and fast spreading also pose a danger for usersÃ¢â¬â¢ privacy. In order to prevent people from these threats, improving the privacy settings and informing them completely should be the major precautions. References Reiher, N.(2009). Privacy on social networking sites and its impact on computer-mediated communication. Retrieved April 9,2012, from http://www.grin.com/en/e-book/154916/privacy- on-social-network-sites-and-its-impact-on-computer-mediated-communication SNAPR Methodology project team. Dear social networking user: Are you at risk? Retrieved April 9,2012, from socialrisk.weebly.com/index.html Sweeny,R.(2011). Social networking sites; More harm than good? Retrieved April 9,2012, from http://networkconference.netstudies.org/2011/04/social-networking-sites-more-harm-than- good/
Sunday, September 15, 2019
1.1 Ã¢â¬â The purpose of communication can be given by any means, it could be talking, email, text message, phone call, meeting as a group and notes. But all of these are done for the same reason to resolve a problem, to communicate a problem to others to resolve it or to organize or explain the problem to help other understand the agenda of what you are speaking about or working on. Every person has their own skills and knowledge so by communicating we can help each other learn or explain things to each other by all of the forms of communications mentioned above. There would be no understanding or routine without communication. 1.2 Ã¢â¬â The reasons for knowing the audience to whom you are speaking to is that if you know them then you can quickly figure out or should already know what way, language or style of writing which should or could be used. The aim is always to get your point, problem or query understood by whomever may be listening, reading or watching. So if it is an individual, group or team or people you know that you may know personally this makes the task at hand so much easier because they will believe you in what you are saying or trying to communicate across in which ever manner which is chosen. They will also understand the language, emotion or attitude you will be using towards them compared to if it was a complete stranger trying to understand you. I will always use whichever way of talking, writing or body language which I think will be the easiest for my selected audience at hand. Read more:Ã Different reasons why people communicateÃ essay 1.3 Ã¢â¬â The different methods of communication are Verbal, Written and non-verbal (Body language). Verbal would be communicating by using my voice to say and tell whatever I may be trying to communicate across to my audience. Written communication would be, sending an email, letter, text message to explain, tell or inform my audience. Non-verbal communication using body language, would be showing with my hands,Ã eyes or face by using gestures to show and tell. 1.4 Ã¢â¬â You should always use different methods of communication, for example if you was in a management meeting you would always communicate verbally in a formal manner. For just having a general talk between our editorial team in our desk area we would use informal for talking about the plans for the social media sites for the company, what products should be selected to show up on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s daily Facebook updates. Non-verbal would or could be used by sending an emails to someone to add facts, figures or statisticÃ¢â¬â¢s or even in a form as a written note. Body language is always used even without us know we are doing it, in any form of communication except sending emails, texts etc.Ã¢â¬ ¦ Body language can tell or show a lot more from the way you hold your self during a public speaking or when at an informal or formal meetings.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Outline the functionalist view on the role and purpose of education in society Functionalists argue that education has three broad functions. Education teaches that solidarity and skills are required by a modern industrial society. Solidarity is being together, treating people fairly and going with the norms and values of society and stop discrimination, without it there would be a state of chaos where there are no rules. In order to prepare yourself for work you need the skills provision to help achieve your goal. These may be general skills that everyone need such as literacy and numeracy or the specific skills needed for the particular occupation. As the division of labour increases in complexity and occupational roles become more specialised, increasingly longer periods in education becomes necessary. You also need socialisation and meritocracy to maintain society by teaching young people the key cultural values, such as achievement, competition, equality of opportunities, social solidarity, democracy and religious morality. Parsons stated that education Ã¢â¬Ëbridges the gap between the family and the wider societyÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â this is also seen in secondary socialisation where we are taught the universalistic standards which are judgments based on universally agreed principles, which is seen differently in particularistic standards which are judgments based on an exclusive view of a particular group. Socialising children to adapt the meritocratic view of achievement is when and individual has achieved something on their own with their own talent and ability. Functionalists also say school is a miniature of society as young people are expected to follow some norms and values within the school which is then applied to the real world. They are also both meritocratic and believe in an achieved status- which is working to grasp your goal with your own talent and ability which can move you up or down the social class ladder and gives social mobility. Functionalists disagree with having an ascribed status which is being born into a social class which could mean you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to work for anything as everything is already there for you. Davis and Moore are functionalists and believe that education is important for role allocation. This allocates people to the most suitable jobs for their talent; it does this through exams and qualifications. Education allows you to sort people into future work roles- some people are more talented than others- some work requires more skills than others. More talented students will eventually be rewarded by being allocated to these job roles. The human capital theory shows that a meritocratic education system is the best way to develop a skilled workforce to create a strong economy and higher living standards
Friday, September 13, 2019
Information Technology Architectures - Essay Example The client is a workstation computer which runs front-end applications. It communicates with the user through the keyboard, mouse and the display. The client also recalls to the client process that operates on the client machine. The client performs its processes from the server displaying information managed by the server. Therefore, the client does not posses responsibilities to direct data accessibility; thus the client workstation can be optimized for its duties. For example, it requires minimal disk capacity. The client is indispensable to allow implementation of several client servers, ranging from personal computers to mainframes and several client interfaces to store and retrieve information. Oracle 7 implements the ANSI/ISO and SQL interfaces and standards fully support the client environment (Belapurkar, 2009). The server is a tool that Oracle7 software runs on and handles the essential functions for concurrent access of shared data. Referred to as back-end server, a statement derived from the processes that the server machine does (Belapurkar, 2009). The server process SQL and PL/SQL statements received from the client applications. The server can be optimized for its functions. For example, it can have fast processors and a large disk capacity. It can also take the input/output disk operations such as, file transfer and printing of documents. The network facilitates remote data access through a server to the server and client server communication. OracleÃ¢â¬â¢s network facilities allow applications and databases to reside on different computers with different operating systems at the same time communicating as peer applications (Belapurkar, 2009). Distributed systems architecture enhances hardware and software resource sharing as shown from a loosely coupled distributed system which is a single-user workstation enabling accessibility, of shared resources and data in other server computers (Belapurkar,
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Report Plan - Essay Example (What product, service, or program will you recommend?) The topic of the report would be improvement in the providing financial aid to poor but deserving students. The current financial aid process requires students to apply a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) form which would be forwarded to the Federal Student Aid Programs (U.S. Department of Education, 2013). As disclosed, the receipt of the FAFSA by the Federal Student Aid Programs will prompt the Department of Education to issue an official Student Aid Report (SAR) to the applicant. After which, the educational facility would be provided with a copy of the SAR electronically. The processing normally takes four to six weeks and there is difficulty in following up the status of the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s application after the FAFSA has been forwarded to the Federal Student Aid Program due to the volume of applications received. As such, the student who applied for financial aid has little recourse if the application is de nied at the last moment and thereby, provides the student with virtually no alternative courses to seek financial assistance and enroll in graduate programs, as planned. 3. Identify the purpose of the report. (What need or problem will the product, service, or program resolve?) The purpose of the report, therefore, is to provide students applying for financial aid under the graduate services program with other alternative courses for financial assistance; in addition , or in lieu of the application with FAFSA. Hopefully, educational institutions should have their specific financial aid program to support the academic needs of deserving students and which could be processed on a shorter time frame to enable incoming graduate students to plan for the academic endeavor prior to formal school opening. 4. Identify potential resources that will be needed for support. To support the report, the potential resources that could be researched are: (1) private institutions that provide educatio nal support and financial aid which could be tapped by incoming graduate students; (2) some form of promissory note agreement could be forged between the student and the graduate studies administrator to determine the fees for a particular semester and accommodate the minimum fee that could enroll the student on a lay-away or down payment scheme; and (3) provision of greater opportunities to be accepted to the graduate assistantship program (Graduate Assistantships, 2013). 5. Identify methods to be used to gather information. To gather pertinent information on the abovementioned resources, the following data could be researched: (1) secondary sources of information of private scholarships being provided; (2) pros and cons of promissory note methods; and (3) weighing pros and cons of being admitted to the graduate assistantship program as students are pursuing their masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degrees. Likewise, other previous secondary sources of information conducted by authoritative authors o n the subject could provide needed support. If time would allow, other sources of gathering information could be through survey or questionnaire method, interviews, or through primary method of research. 6. Identify criteria to be used to evaluate the information collected. (What factors will you consider to make your recommendation?) To evaluate the information collected, the factors that would be considered are as follows: To apply for
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
At the Core of Hendrix's Ladyland Experience - Essay Example Though it lacks the recording quality and quiet grace of "All Along the Watchtower", it throws out the real Hendrix that was woven through all of his too few albums. The song is rooted in Hendrix's genius for creating open-ended passages that flow out of a simple construction based on few chords. His prolific use of the 9th chords provides the song with a rock-blues sound with an ever-present feeling of tension. As Hendrix overlays his classic guitar leads, he pulls the song back to its blues roots only long enough for the listener to catch up and anticipate the coming resolution. The song is reminiscent of other blues giants of the period such as Butterfield, Mayhall, and Bloomfield but benefits from the addition of the extra musical filigree that only Hendrix possessed. The song is further enhanced by the profound use of multi-tracking, which was still a relatively new concept. By today's standards "Long Hot Summer Night" is rather poorly produced. At times the song is muddy and lacks the clear and crisp sound found on other songs from "The Experience". However, Hendrix's guitar leads remain intact with the hair-raising richness that is immediately identifiable. He handles the neck of his Stratocaster as if it's another appendage. Though few devices are noticeable on the track, Hendrix utilizes slides and bends with an ease that leaves no doubt that Jimi is in charge. The fullness of the amplifiers produce a sound that fills the listener with the liquid metallic smoothness of the finest blues-rock sound ever created. The guitar is rife with the round richness of overtones that we know as Hendrix. The familiar guitar is accompanied by Hendrix on vocals and spotlights his classic combination of defiance, pleading, and poetry. Though Hendrix was often self critical of his own voice, on "Long Hot Summer Night" he provides the harmony on the back up parts as well. His self-consciousness shows through as the back up vocals are often thin and seem out of place with the rest of the high power material. However, the force of Hendrix's poetry is able to overpower the song as the back up passages contain no meaningful lyrical content. It is able to successfully tell the age-old story of struggle and conflict that is as important today as it was then. The lyrics, typical of the period, are laced with psychedelic references that would be out of step today. The song tells of "three sugar walls and two candy cane windows " and serves up images of the surreal world of Hendrix. Yet, these are only lyrical devices that Hendrix uses to set the stage for his story. It is about the troubled "Summer of '68" and the trouble Hendrix was confronting while seeing himself as a musician thrust into a world of business and fame that he privately shunned. It is a song about escaping the twin masters he served, his art and the record label, as we see in his use of contrast as he repeats the line "hot cold summer". When he first introduces the telephone, clearly an annoyance, he says, "the telephone blew its horn". A few lines later, the tension has escalated and now "the telephone is screaming". At this point Hendrix breaks into a guitar solo signaling his escape from the torment and back into his craft, the quintessential Hendrix. The lyrics beg fo r release from the confusion of the earlier verses as he pleads for his
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Walker Evans photographs in the book Let Us Now Praise Famous Men - Essay Example Most of WalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s work were in the 1930s and were even incorporated in some of the documents of the Great Depression. However, these issues did not only concern the 1930s tribulations but also reflected on modern films, literature and traditional visual arts. Although this particular book is presented as documentary and true critics say that the pictures were somewhat posed for technical and aesthetic reasons. This has led to number of controversies over the truth of historical records (Kaja, 2008). Evans pictures are photographic, very direct and even appear to be literal. Perhaps the most remarkable picture in this book is the third, the picture of Mrs Gudger. It shows a woman with a beautifully bony face, thinning black hair, sunken or perhaps bitten-in mouth and sun-narrowed eyes. The face is a single concentrated phrase of suffering; you are bound to have an immediate outgoing impulse toward it, but this is at once hemmed in, at once made careful and respectful, by what the camera does. It is significant that, like all the pictures in the book, this is a portrait; it was "sat for" and "posed" and not only does the pose tell more than could be told by unconsciousness of the camera but the sitter gains in dignity when allowed to defend herself against the lens. The gaze of the woman returning our gaze checks our pity; and it is further checked by the cameras observance of the strands of jetty hair, of the sharp horizontals of eyebrows, eyes and mouth which are repeated in th e three parallel shadows of the clapboard wall behind, and by the cameras light emphasis on the early wrinkles and the puckered forehead, which are delicately repeated in the grain of the wood. And this is true of all of Evans pictures of the Gudger, Woods and Ricketts families. The entire hullaballoo about the photos; the rocking chair being moved, about the time on the clock, about the time the photos, about objects being added or removed is much fuss over
Monday, September 9, 2019
Comparison of the Ideas of Jane Jacobs and Oscar Newman in Their Approach to Safety and Security in Urban Neighborhoods and City Centers - Essay Example The idea of defensible space originated out of the ideas of Jane Jacobs in 1961 and was further developed by Oscar Newman in 1973 (Greenberg et al, 1982). Both Jacobs and Newman ultimately argued in favor of creating boundaries in urban neighborhoods for crime prevention strategies, although in slightly different ways. Jacobs is largely credited with articulating the Ã¢â¬Å"eyes on the streetÃ¢â¬ theory of crime prevention in urban neighborhoods, while Newman is credited with expanding upon JacobÃ¢â¬â¢s theory and developing what has come to be known as defensible space (Carmona, et al, 2010, p. 151). Essentially, Jacobs argued that keeping our eyes on the street provides a significant remedy for keeping our streets and neighborhoods safer and more secure. Newman used the term defensible space to expound upon JacobÃ¢â¬â¢s theory and argued that the infrastructure of urban areas with high-rise buildings created danger because people who occupied these places were helpless to defend, identify, see their entire property. Eradicating fear of crime and prevention crime was therefore solved by creating boundaries that segregated the streets from the streets (Carmona, et al, 2010). Thus both Jacobs and Newman contributed to the theory that urban design is a valuable method for reducing the fear of crime and preventing crime in urban neighborhoods by recognizing and responding to the idea of creating boundaries between areas that were in close proximity to high crime areas: the city. Jacobs (1961) proposed that by increasing neighborhood participation at the street level would help residents to control their surrounding streets. The rationale for this theory was that the more eyes directed toward the streets would act as a deterrent to crime. Jacobs (1961) argued that placing bright lights on streets is not enough unless there are eyes trained on the area.
London Zoo - Case Study Example However, to run a zoo is a very detailed and complicated business. There are directors, curator, zookeepers, veterinarians, landscapers and maintenance workers. This is only a few of the zoos employees because there are promotions, accountants, front desk, special services and a department to handle the volunteers. A zoo is a business like any other profit or non-profit organization and there are many details that must be considered when investigating the operations of a zoo. In fact, due to the nature of the wildlife kept in a zoo it entails many business and health regulations that many business never encounter. The following will include a Management Report of the London Zoo that will provide a comprehensive focus, for management, staff and customers of the zoo. It will focus on the needs of the customers that will give staff and management a perspective on the priorities of the customers needs and wants. In addition, it will enable them to develop and deliver a service operation to match the customer needs and priorities. It will offer suggestions and recommendations on how management and staff can reach this goal. The next portion of the report will examine the existing service concept of the London Zoo and make suggestions for improvement. It is important to understand what a service concept is and in order to do this one must think in terms of customer service. It is a concept usually set forth in a mission statement that improves the service and quality of the service in an organization. The goal of a service objective is to improve the existing customer service and efficiency of the service provided by an organization. In addition, the service concept continually is evaluated and any improvements that are necessary are made. According to Behn, a service concept is one of the most important decisions that management can make regarding the operation of their business. (2001) A service concept model can be derived just from London Zoo's mission statement. Their mission statement reads, "To achieve and promote the worldwide conservation of animals and their habitats" (London Zoo) Their statement seems to say so little but actually it says a lot. To promote the wildlife is actually a much larger endeavor than it sounds and to promote the habitats of these animals is also a paramount undertaking. Nonetheless, the mission statement does require some elaboration. The promotion will be included in the service concept model. As well the habitat of the animals must be included in the concept. If the promotion includes advertising animals in their habitats the Zoo is then responsible for replicating these habitats and that is not as easy as it sounds. It requires construction as well as the study of the environment that the animal's habitat is in and most significant, it requires resources. MISSION STATEMENT/SERVICE CONCEPT: The London Zoo does explain how they will pursue the goal. "The London Zoo pursues this mission by:keeping and presenting animals at London Zoo and in accordance with best practice;giving priority to species that are threatened in the wild;increasing public understanding of animals and their welfare and of the issues involved in their conservation;maintaining an outstanding education and information programme, particularly for schoolchildren and families;developing its role as a leading centre for research and conservation biology and animal
Sunday, September 8, 2019
Corruption and Law - Research Paper Example impact of corruption on the economic growth is high since it creates nonlinear relationship that exists between corruption, terrorism, and crime as well. In general, corruption is a propellant of unethical fibers of the civilization which implies that the exercise posses indisputably action among the people. This however, affects economic and social. When the entire regime in the government of a given nation allows an aspect of corruption, this aspect affects the entire society both morally and economically. However, a clean government is not an assurance that economic prosperity and growth will be attained. This means that rapid economic growth is propelled by the absence of risks and uncertainty within the prevailing regime (Hurd 2011, 47). Economic growth needs effective decision making from higher level of governance as this reduces bureaucratic intervention within the regime in power as per that time of governance. Corruption and economic growth are nonlinear correlation events in the sense that rapid growth in economy of the country can be possible if we have strong institutions devoid of corrupt activities. In addition, the regime should portray stability in its political events and provide reasonable decision making that propel fast economic growth (Detzer 2010, 65-68). We have various institutions in the U.S formed to cover the aspect of terrorism and transnational crime. Such institutions have been seen as aspects that propel corruption in any national governance in many nations worldwide. Corruption is based on international security, which foresees government position leaders, and the entire system comes in hand to support terrorism activities through funding. The aspect of long-term preservation by the transnational crime contributes highly on political campaigns through funding and they ensure that they are involved in nationalistic events. Through these activities, transnational crime however engages many of their activities within the prevailing
Saturday, September 7, 2019
ETHICS DAY QUESTIONS - Essay Example This simply means that people confirm and acknowledge that the religious teaching on doing unto others what one wants others to do unto thyself is evidently grounded on ethical and moral codes. In oneÃ¢â¬â¢s experience, religion, through teachings like the Ten Commandments, provide guidelines for doing what is right and abiding by universal standards of morality and ethics. This is most applicable in situations and cultures where teachings have been imbibed and transferred from one generation to another. Likewise, one also believes that some people could abide by moral and ethical standards; and yet assert that they are not affiliated with any religious groups. A public figure, Barack Obama, who exemplifies or exhibits an ethical theory that best fits this person is utilitarianism, or asserting that actions should be conducted based on the potential outcome of benefitting the greatest number of people for the greater good. ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s religion was noted to be Christian (Lederman, 2013). As the President of the United States, a nation known to promote diversity, he is expected to be unbiased in practicing the religion that varied people prefer. As such, the most viable ethical theory is the promotion of utilitarianism which fits Obama, as the president of a powerful and democratic nation. Lederman, J. (2013, October 19). Obamas Religion Is Out Of Spotlight But Christian Spirituality Serves During Tough Times. Retrieved from Huffington Post:
Friday, September 6, 2019
Drunk Driving Essay People that get in trouble for driving under the influence should have their licenses revoked forever. They put innocent peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives in danger for their own enjoyment. They also put their own lives in danger. Hundred and thousands of people die every year due to drunk driving incidents. Sometimes the people causing these tragedies, get the privilege to drive on our streets again. Does this sound right? Should we really risk other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives just so this person is allowed to drive again? I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think so. Why should these people be rewarded with their licenses after putting innocent peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives in danger? Why should these people have the ability to drive on the streets? Driving is a privilege, that can and should be taken away. There were 11,773 deaths caused by drunk drivers in 2008. 32% of all car accidents in the U.S. are caused by drinking and driving. .216 children under the age of fourteen were killed in 2008 because of people getting behind the wheel after consuming too much alcohol. It is only the right thing to do, to take away the licenses from these people forever. They have lost their privilege and should not have it given back to them. A few years ago, on my aunt and uncles wedding day, my aunt was killed. They were on their way to their honey moon when they were hit straight on by a drunk driver. She died instantly. It was traumatizing for my uncle, the rest of my family, and all of my aunts friends. They lady that hit them is currently in jail, and will be for another twelve years. She will have her license revoked forever. The way it should be. But will that really keep her off the streets when she gets out of prison? We donÃ¢â¬â¢t know. Drunk driving is wrong and unacceptable. It is selfish and careless, and should not be treated with ease. People caught doing this should be punished severely.